Middle East & Africa: Egypt


Egypt occupies the easternmost tip of the African continent and was the origin of one of the earliest civilizations. From mathematics to architecture to farming, the Egyptians made astounding contributions.
Egypt was united around 3100 BC and ruled by 30 successive pharaonic dynasties until 525 BC. A series of foreign invasions by the Persians, Greeks, and Romans followed. In 639 AD, Egypt was invaded by Islamic Arabs, who ruled until the invasion of the Ottoman Turks in 1517. The Turks controlled Egypt for about 300 years before being ousted by the British in 1882. Although independent in 1922, Egypt was used by the British as a base for Allied operations during World War II. Today the United States and Egypt enjoy a strong relationship based on mutual interests in Middle East peace and trade.
Egypt is now a republic. Its economy is about $303 billion, with a growth rate of about 5%. Per capita GDP is about $4,282. Egypt has many natural resources, including petroleum, natural gas, and many metals, and it also produces cotton and rice.
With a population of 79 million, Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world. About 94% of Egyptians are Muslim. The literacy rate is about 58%. Life expectancy is about 78 years.

Hemophilia in Egypt
An estimated 6,500 people live with bleeding disorders in Egypt, but only 4,540 have been identified. About 1,500 are registered with the six hemophilia treatment centers, located mainly in major cities.
The Egyptian government provides approximately 38% of healthcare costs. Most hemophilia patients are treated with plasma or cryoprecipitate, resulting in a high risk of transfusing blood-borne diseases like HIV and hepatitis B and C. Factor concentrate is available only in limited quantities, and patients must travel long distances to get it.